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Virtual office

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Virtual office

A virtual office is a combination of off-site live communication and address services that allow users to reduce traditional office costs while maintaining business professionalism. Frequently the term is confused with “office business centers” or “executive suites” which demand a conventional lease whereas a true virtual office does not require that expense.

History


The virtual office idea came from the convergence of technological innovation and the Information Age. The concept has roots in the Industrial Revolution, where parallels to current work styles, specifically working from home, have been drawn. The term was first used in a 1983 airline in-flight magazine article about portable computing. The virtual office concept is an evolution of the executive suites industry. However, the inflexibility of an executive suite lease doesn’t work for many business models and helped spur the virtual office concept. The first commercial application of a virtual office occurred in 1994, when Ralph Gregory founded “The Virtual Office, Inc”, in Boulder, Colorado. This company expanded throughout North America and is now known as "Intelligent Office”

Firefox 4.01 is released

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Made to make the Web a better place.

  • a new look
  • super speed
  • even more awesomeness
Firefox screenshot

Team Firefox

114,904,192 downloads and counting!

Mother's Day Flower Special

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Mother's Day Special
 


Up to 50% off Mother's Day Flowers & Gifts
Expires 4/30/2011
Link must be used to activate promotion
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15% off Flowers & Gifts for Mom (min $39.99)
Valid 5/1 – 5/7/2011
Link must be used to activate promotion
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Mother's Day Flowers & Gifts from only $19.99 + get a FREE Vase
Expires 5/7/2011
Link must be used to activate promotion
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Mother's Day Product Promotions


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Save 25% on All the Frills flower bouquet w/ FREE Premium Green Vase, only $29.99
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Computer blue screen code 0X0000004E (0X0000009, 0X00000261, 0X000000001, 0x00000000)

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Computer blue screen code 0X0000004E (0X0000009, 0X00000261, 0X000000001, 0x00000000)


When the computer starts the boot process the following blue screen appears in the code: stop 0x0000004E, so the computer can not boot, you can try Safe Mode can not enter the system.

Computer blue screen reasons

:
◆ Error analysis: When the computer is there stop 0x0000004E, generally the system during startup blue screen (we call boot blue screen). If the Startup and Recovery system is set to reboot automatically, we generally do not see the stop 0x0000004E. The system will automatically restart. This blue screen problems occurred. Generally because of hardware failures, such as memory quality, and used for some time, there will be blue this started. In addition, if a newly added memory, it should attract attention, or was new memory quality problems, or else the original memory is not compatible.

Computer Blue Screen Solution

:
◇ Solution: If you recently added a memory, make sure your memory brand is the same, if not the same, there may be a conflict of memory and motherboard, and if not, you then open the chassis, the chassis and then card inserted all the data lines and a solid point to see if the same, you remove the memory and look at the surface and the finger part of the memory is dust and dirt, if you can brush the surface of dust about memory, and then memory eraser clean up with finger, if still the same, if your motherboard has two memory, you pull one, and then boot look. If still the same, you then put on another, it replaced a boot to see if the computer is still there stop 0x0000004E, there may be damage to your memory.
Virus causes: there is a fault caused by a virus start blue screen stop 0x0000004E, if you suspect a virus, you can try go in safe mode to safe mode, anti-virus to see if the computer did not detect toxic drug does not mean, you know generation of antivirus software is built on the basis of the virus, so in this case you only reinstall system.
If you're still there stop 0x0000004E,. Other hardware failure may be caused by a blue screen.

Julius Caesar Reference

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Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.


In 60 BC, Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by the conservative elite, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended Rome's territory to the North Sea, and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey's standing. The balance of power was further upset by the death of Crassus in 53 BC. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. Ordered by the senate to stand trial in Rome for various charges, Caesar marched from Gaul to Italy with his legions, crossing the Rubicon in 49 BC. This sparked a civil war from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world.

After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, hoping to restore the constitutional government of the Republic. However, the result was a series of civil wars, which ultimately led to the establishment of the permanent Roman Empire by Caesar's adopted heir Octavius (later known as Augustus). Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources.

Millions of People Prince William Would Never Deign To Speak To Captivated By Royal Wedding

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Millions of People Prince William Would Never Deign To Speak To Captivated By Royal Wedding

April 22, 2011

LONDON—Onlookers throughout the English-speaking world remained enthralled this week by the majesty and pomp of the upcoming nuptials of England's Prince William, a man who wouldn't in a million years be caught dead associating with any of them, sources reported. "What a beautiful dress—and that cake!" said Arizona housewife Jeanette Tyler, 47, a woman Prince William has been raised since birth to believe he is genetically superior to in all respects. "It's like a fairy tale." The wedding of Price William, whose full title is His Royal Highness Prince William Arthur Philip Louis of Wales, Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, will be broadcast to six continents of the eager hoi polloi, none of whom he would ever even stand within 50 feet of unless they were part of a carefully orchestrated photo opportunity

 

Earth Day Canada

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April 22 (Good Friday) to April 25
(Easter Monday) 10 am to 4pm
Hop along the Zoo’s “Eco-trail” and celebrate Earth Day® this Easter weekend! Earth Day Canada and the Toronto Zoo are partnering with and twelve of the top environmental education organizations for our very own “Party for the Planet.” Join us at the new Tundra Trek area for a fun-filled day of conservation and education.

NetBeans IDE 7.0

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NetBeans IDE 7.0

Developers, why use dreamweaver which is expensive and difficult!
NetBeans is a free, open-source Integrated Development Environment for software developers. You get all the tools you need to create professional desktop, enterprise, web, and mobile applications with the Java language, C/C++, and even dynamic languages such as PHP, JavaScript, Groovy, and Ruby. NetBeans IDE is easy to install and use straight out of the box and runs on many platforms including Windows, Linux, Mac OS X and Solaris.
Develop desktop, mobile and web applications with Java, PHP, C/C++ and more.
Runs on Windows, Linux, Mac OS X and Solaris. NetBeans IDE is open-source and free.
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Select the Right Work Desk

by Patricia Schaefer

Will that desk you’re thinking of purchasing suit your workstyle and meet your job needs? Will its size fit well within the parameters and constraints of your office or work space? Can the desk surface withstand the daily-use demands of your particular job and work environment?
These are just a few of the things you need to consider when choosing a work desk. And that’s because the right desk can aide immeasurably in accomplishing work tasks in a comfortable, ergonomic and productive manner.

Identify Just How You Will Use Your Desk

Mostly computer work:

Select a desk or workstation specifically designed for computer use. If using a PC, be sure the desk offers space or a compartment to hold the CPU underneath. Look for built-in wiring holes or channels for electrical connections; this allows for a safe way to keep cords out of your way.

Paperwork-generating:

Choose a desk or workstation that will have the roomiest surface possible so you can accommodate those spreadsheets, bulky books, or piles of important papers. You may also want to consider a desk with shelving or overhead cabinet space.

Combination of computer work, paperwork, meetings:

For a home work desk:

Consider a computer armoire if you want to hide work clutter in your home. “L”-shaped desks are often a good solution and fit when your work desk needs to share space in another room like a bedroom or family room.

Tight on space:

Choose a compact computer desk or mobile computer cart.

Consider Your Workstyle Habits and Tools

Do you consider yourself the creative-genius-messy-work type? If so, you’ll need more desk/workstation space than the neat-and-frugal type. Neatniks may find a smaller desk sufficient for their work needs. The amount and size of tools needed within easy reach on your desk should also be a consideration when selecting a work desk.

Ergonomics and Space

Your desk should provide clearance for your legs; standard desk heights of 29 to 30 inches from the floor are sufficient for most users.
Sitting behind the desk, there should optimally be at least three-and-a half feet of space. A minimum of three feet of space should also be available in-between the desk and another piece of office furniture, and in front of the desk if you use a guest/client chair.
For computer-users, keyboards need to be placed at a comfortable height. Keyboards placed on traditional desks may be at too high a height and may result in significant discomfort or muscle strain for the user. Computer desks should either be equipped with a keyboard platform, or legs that can be adjusted. Be sure that any keyboard platform is large enough to hold a mouse.
Desktop equipment and materials should be within easy and comfortable reach, and should have sufficient space so as not to overload the desktop.
If the desk has a sharp edge, consider placing a wrist pad along the edge to help prevent unnecessary pressure and pinching on the inner surface of the wrists.

Desk Surface

Laminate: the most popular choice

A plastic finish that is applied to a wood core, laminate is affordable, durable, and withstands more than pure wood or veneer. It also comes in a wide array of colors and wood grain patterns. For a quality laminate that will better withstand daily use and abuse, look for a desk with a thick, high pressure laminate.

Metal or Steel: the most durable choice

Although not the most professional in appearance, metal or steel desks are reasonably priced and good for desks subject to long-term heavy use or for high- traffic areas. Better quality desks of this type can be assessed in part by checking and feeling the desks overall weight.

Wood or Veneer: the most elegant choice

Veneer is a thin surface layer of wood glued to a more inferior base. Wood and veneer desks generally look more attractive than other types of desk, but they are typically more expensive and considerably more delicate; they nick more easily and are not suited for rough or heavy use.

Quality and Durability

The quality of a desk is often most evident in the construction of the drawers.

Metal suspension rollers show a sturdy suspension. Drawers should open and close easily while bearing weight. Optimally, you want the drawers to slide out to their full length to allow full and easy utilization of space.

High quality wood drawers are assembled with an interlocking (dovetail) construction; this is stronger than drawers put together with just staples or glue. With a steel or metal desk, take a look at the drawers when they’re closed. If you see a gap where the drawer meets the desk, the desk is not set right.

Examine the corners and edges of a desk. You don’t want to see any fraying.
The desk warranty itself will give you a good idea of the quality, durability and life expectancy of a particular desk. Warranties typically range anywhere from a one-year limited to a lifetime warranty.

Give Your Back a Break

The Stand-up desk:

Thomas Jefferson invented it and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld swears by it.

As we’ve all been told, sitting for hours at a time can wreak havoc on a person’s back, especially for individuals with existing back problems. Consider giving your back a break by using a stand-up desk, where you quite literally “stand up” while working. Many users claim this work method also makes them feel more alert and productive on-the-job. Desk stools are also available to be used in conjunction with these desks.

Today’s desk is no longer the simple table with drawers of years gone by. Take advantage of the myriad of desk choices out there; many now available at relatively reasonable prices at office supply superstores. Give some thought to the considerations listed above when selecting your next work desk. It will serve as a valuable tool in establishing a comfortable, ergonomic and productive workspace.

Consider an “L”-shaped desk setup to allow for both work and meeting space. If finances or space allow, a “U”-shaped model will provide even more space and makes an impressive presentation for clients or guests.

What is section 13 of the Canadian Human Rights Act?

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What is section 13 of the Canadian Human Rights Act?

Section 13 of the Canadian Human Rights Act (CHRA) empowers the Commission to deal with complaints regarding the communication of hate messages by telephone or on the Internet:

13. (1) It is a discriminatory practice for a person or a group of persons acting in concert to communicate telephonically or to cause to be so communicated, repeatedly, in whole or in part by means of the facilities of a telecommunication undertaking within the legislative authority of Parliament, any matter that is likely to expose a person or persons to hatred or contempt by reason of the fact that person or those persons are identifiable on the basis of a prohibited ground of discrimination.

Interpretation

(2) For greater certainty, subsection (1) applies in respect of a matter that is communicated by means of a computer or a group of interconnected or related computers, including the Internet, or any similar means of communication, but does not apply in respect of a matter that is communicated in whole or in part by means of the facilities of a broadcasting undertaking.

What is the history of section 13?

The parliamentary record indicates that section 13 was initially included in the legislation to address activities of individuals and groups who were using the telephone system to disseminate hate messages.

In submissions before the Parliamentary Justice and Legal Affairs Committee in 1977, prior to the enactment of the CHRA, the then Minister of Justice the Honourable Ronald Basford, made the following remarks regarding the proposed section 13:

Clause 13 is the hate message section, which is here as a result largely of actions in Toronto… where some of the extreme groups have adopted the practice of having recorded hate messages on the telephone and this is an attempt, I think a balanced attempt, to endeavour to deal with that situation. I think the key words in terms of a hate message is that it has to be communicated telephonically repeatedly. I underline the word ‘repeatedly’, that it has to be part of a pattern, part of a behaviour.

Minister Basford later added that "what is sought is some method of preventing these messages which, I would say, surely serve no social purpose".

When was section 13 amended to include the Internet? Why?

With the advent of the Internet, the question arose as to whether information posted on a website could constitute hate messages under section 13(1). In December 2001, Parliament amended the CHRA by adding section 13(2) which makes it clear that Internet hate messages come under the jurisdiction of the Commission.

This amendment was included as part of a package of anti-terrorism measures introduced on October 15, 2001 in response to the events of 9/11. A government release issued at the time noted the following:

...These necessary measures target people and activities that pose a threat to the security and well being of Canadians. This is a struggle against terrorism, and not against any one community, group or faith. Diversity is one of Canada's greatest strengths, and the Government of Canada is taking steps to protect it. Measures will be included in the bill to address the root causes of hatred and to ensure Canadian values of equality, tolerance and fairness are affirmed in the wake of the September 11 attacks. These include:

amending the Criminal Code to eliminate online hate propaganda and create a new offence of mischief against places of religious worship or religious property; and
amending the CHRA to extend the prohibition against hate messages beyond telephone messages to include all telecommunications technologies.

On February 21, 2005, the then Minister of Justice, the Honourable Irwin Cotler, appeared before the Senate Special Committee on the Anti-terrorism Act as part of the statutory review of the Anti-Terrorism Act. In his testimony before the Committee the Minister identified "the anti-hate principle" as one of eleven principles underlying the Act. He said:

This principle — another variation of the minority rights principle — seeks to protect visible minorities from any hate on the Internet or in the public communications sphere, which can have the effect, not only of singling them out as targets of hatred, but also as targets of terrorist acts.Thus, our anti-terrorism law includes important provisions that will allow the courts to order the deletion of publicly available hate propaganda from computer systems, such as an Internet site. As well, there are Criminal Code amendments that would create a new offence of mischief motivated by bias, prejudice or hate based on religion, race, colour, national or ethnic origin, committed against a place of religious worship or associated religious property.

In addition, there are amendments to the Canadian Human Rights Act to make it clear that using telephone Internet or other communication tools for hatred purposes or discrimination is prohibited. This is particularly important in light of the Internet's ability to extend the potential reach of hate messages to millions.

For more information on the history of section 13 see: Hate messages and section 13 of the Canadian Human Rights Act Legal Milestones.

What was the basis for including the Internet under section 13?

On April 8, 1999, the Honourable Anne McLellan, then Minister of Justice, announced the establishment of an independent Panel to conduct a review of the CHRA. The Act had not been comprehensively reviewed since it was passed in 1977.

The Review Panel was chaired by the Honourable Gérard La Forest, former Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. Other members of the panel were Mme Renée Dupuis, a former commissioner with the Canadian Human Rights Commission; Mr. William Black, professor of human rights law at the University of British Columbia; and Mr. Harish Jain, a professor of business at McMaster University and noted expert on systemic discrimination issues.

Among many other issues, the Panel was asked to consider the question of whether the Act should expressly prohibit hate messages on the Internet.

The Panel released its report, Promoting Equality: A New Vision, in June 2000. Chapter 18(d) deals with the Panel’s findings and recommendations with regard to hate on the Internet. Recommendation 143 addresses the inclusion of the Internet under section 13:

143. We recommend that, to the extent that it is possible, the prohibition of hate messages in the Act be broadened to encompass both existing and future telecommunications technologies in federal jurisdiction.

In reaching this recommendation, the Panel considered whether broadening the scope of section 13 might be an undue limitation on freedom of expression. The panel noted:

Perhaps the first question is whether this regulation of the content of communication is consistent with the freedom of expression protected by the Charter.

In 1990, the Supreme Court of Canada dealt with this issue in Canadian Human Rights Commission v. Taylor. A Tribunal under the Act found Taylor liable for hate messages contrary to section 13. When he was committed for contempt of the Tribunal Order, he challenged section 13 as an unconstitutional infringement of his freedom of expression. Chief Justice Dickson held that section 13(1) was a reasonable limit on freedom of expression justified in a free and democratic society and did not violate the Charter. He wrote that there was an important objective for section 13. "It can thus be concluded that messages of hate propaganda undermine the dignity and self-worth of target group members and, more generally, contribute to disharmonious relations among various racial, cultural and religious groups, as a result eroding the tolerance and open-mindedness that must flourish in a multi-cultural society which is committed to the idea of equality."

Chief Justice Dickson found other elements required to demonstrate that section 13(1) was a reasonable limit. Parliament had tailored the prohibition to meet its objective. The Act prohibited only extreme hatred and contempt which was clearly antithetical to its purposes. Further, the use of the term "repeated" to describe the proscribed hate messages focused the prohibition on the public, larger scale schemes for the dissemination of hate propaganda which most threatened the "admirable aim underlying the Act." He rejected an argument that the Charter required that the Crown had to prove that the respondent had to intend to communicate hate messages before being liable under the Act, because the general concern in human rights legislation is with the effects of acts rather than whether they were intended. A discriminatory act is just as hurtful if unintended as if intended. Further, the Court also held that the Charter did not require the Act to provide a defence of truth to persons alleged to have disseminated hate messages. A truthful statement in this context is just as damaging as an untruthful one.

We believe that the communication of hate messages by the Internet is just the kind of public and large-scale scheme for the dissemination of hatred that would come within the scope of the Supreme Court of Canada's ruling. (Emphasis added.)

The Panel’s conclusion was affirmed by the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal in its decision in Citron et al v. Zündel issued in January 2002.

What harm is caused by the communication of hate messages?

In upholding the constitutionality of section 13 in the Taylor Decision, Chief Justice Dickson wrote:

Parliament's concern that the dissemination of hate propaganda is antithetical to the general aim of the Canadian Human Rights Act is not misplaced. The serious harm caused by messages of hatred was identified by the Special Committee on Hate Propaganda in Canada, commonly known as the Cohen Committee, in 1966. The Cohen Committee noted that individuals subjected to racial or religious hatred may suffer substantial psychological distress, the damaging consequences including a loss of self-esteem, feelings of anger and outrage and strong pressure to renounce cultural differences that mark them as distinct. This intensely painful reaction undoubtedly detracts from an individual's ability to, in the words of s. 2 of the Act, "make for himself or herself the life that he or she is able and wishes to have". As well, the Committee observed that hate propaganda can operate to convince listeners, even if subtlety, that members of certain racial or religious groups are inferior. The result may be an increase in acts of discrimination, including the denial of equal opportunity in the provision of goods, services and facilities, and even incidents of violence.

The findings of the Supreme Court were reiterated in the Federal Court of Canada decision in Canada (Human Rights Commission) v. Winnicki. The case concerned the application for an interlocutory injunction against Mr. Winnicki to stop him from posting alleged hate messages pending a final determination by the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal.

In granting the injunction Mr. Justice de Montigny wrote:

The damage caused by hate messages to the groups targeted is very often difficult to repair. It insidiously reinforces the prejudice that some people may have towards minorities identified by race, colour and religion, thus prompting and justifying discriminatory practices and even violence against these groups. At the same time, these messages are most likely to affect the perception and self-esteem of all members of these groups, thus precluding their full participation in Canadian society and the achievement of their full potential as human beings...

Both Justices Dickson and de Montigny made reference to the 1965 report of the Special Committee on Hate Propaganda in Canada (no hyperlink available). The Special Committee, which was chaired by Maxwell Cohen, included among its membership Pierre Trudeau. In considering the appropriate limits to be placed on freedom of expression in order to protect citizens from hate propaganda, the Committee noted:

Canadians who are members of any identifiable group in Canada are entitled to carry on their lives as Canadians without being victimized by the deliberate, vicious promotion of hatred against them. In a democratic society, freedom of speech does not mean the right to vilify. The number of organizations involved and the numbers of persons hurt is no test of the issue: the arithmetic of a free society will not be satisfied with over-simplified statistics demonstrating that few are casting stones and not many are receiving hurts. What matters is that incipient malevolence and violence, all of which are inherent in "hate" activity, deserves national attention. However small the actors may be in number, the individuals and groups promoting hate in Canada constitute 'a clear and present danger' to the functioning of a democratic society. For in times of social stress, such "hate" could mushroom into a real and monstrous threat to our way of life. Nor does giving some of these hate promoters a radio or television platform serve any valid debating purpose. The Committee is aware that radio and particularly television may expose malice and fraud for what it is, but such a view of affording an electronic audience to hate promoters does not take into account the effects of hate arguments and pseudo-facts on uncritical and receptive minds. The broadcasting of "hate", therefore, whether for news or exposure purposes, should be carefully disciplined by those in charge. Indeed, the Committee feels that in recent years some radio and T.V. producers, with the best of intentions, have been mistaken in their belief that exposure of this kind will destroy the virus. But whatever the validity of these views, they do not justify giving propagandists a mass platform as if what they had to say was normal debate on real issues. Plainly it is not.

In the Committee's view the "hate" situation in Canada, although not alarming, clearly is serious enough to require action. It is far better for Canadians to come to grips with this problem now, before it attains unmanageable proportions, rather than deal with it at some future date in an atmosphere of urgency, of fear and perhaps even of crisis. The Canadian community has a duty, not merely the right, to protect itself from the corrosive effects of propaganda that tends to undermine the confidence that various groups in a multicultural society must have in each other.

Microsoft Office Home and Student 2010 Product Key Card

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Microsoft Office Home and Student 2010 Product Key

Also see Office 2010 MAK KEY
Card With Microsoft Office Home and Student 2010, you and your kids can create great schoolwork and home projects from multi-page bibliographies to multimedia presentations. Capture ideas and set them apart with video-editing features and dynamic text effects. Then easily collaborate with classmates without being face-to-face thanks to new Web Apps tools. The results go well beyond expectations with a little inspiration, a lot of creativity and Office Home and Student 2010.
 
Your Jerryblogger.com Special Price: ONLY $119.99

Is Canada a democracy?

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Is Canada a democracy?

Canada is an independent constitutional monarchy, a confederation with parliamentary democracy. So yes it is a democracy.
Canada is a democracy which practices the Parliamentary system of gouvernment and have elected members of parliament (MP).

Canada has political parties and the head of gouvernment is the Prime Minister.
The worst Prime Minister of Canada[1]
The worst Prime Minister in Canada is Stephen Harper.

Define: LinkBacks

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LinkBacks

"LinkBack" is the generalized term we use to reference three methods of communication between Websites:



LinkBacks



Why LinkBacks?

LinkBacks (Trackbacks, Pingbacks and Refbacks) allow you to notify another site that you wrote something related to what is written on a specific page. This improves the chances of contributors to this page noticing that you gave them credit for something, or that you improved upon something they wrote. With LinkBacks, websites are interconnected. Think of them as the equivalents of acknowledgments and references at the end of an academic paper, or a chapter in a textbook.

Linkbacks have long been a major force in the development of the blogging network, by creating an interconnected series of blogs and posts acknowledging one another. Not only does this improve the general community ethos throughout the "blog-o-sphere", but it also helps to make blogs into more powerful link-building tools.





Note: Links built via this method are highly relevant and do not carry the disadvantages typically associated with "link farms" or "link exchanges".

Trackback



A Trackback is simply an acknowledgment. This acknowledgment is sent via a network signal (ping) from Site A (originator) to Site B (receptor). The receptor often publishes a link back to the originator indicating its worthiness.

Trackback requires both, Site A and Site B to be Trackback enabled in order to establish this communication. Trackback does not require for Site A to phisically link to Site B.

Pingback

PingbackA Pingback is also a signal (ping) sent from Site A to Site B. However, it's also a link. When Site B receives the notification signal, it automatically goes back to Site A checking for the existance of a live incoming link, if it exists, the Pingback is recorded successfully. This makes Pingbacks less prone to SPAM than Trackbacks.

Both sites must be Pingback enabled in order to establish this communication. If a site is Pingback enabled, each time you link-out you will be "pinging" external sites. Pingback requires for Site A to phisically link to Site B.

Refback

RefbackA Refback is also a link. However in this case, Site A (link originator) does not need to "tell" anything to Site B (receptor). Instead, the receptor Site "discovers" this link immediately after the first web visitor gets to the site by clicking on the link. This is done by analyzing information carried by this web visitor's browser referer header.

This is an easier method than Pingbacks since the Site originating the link doesn't have to be Pingback enabled (Posting a link back within any webpage is good enough).

What is Democracy?

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Democracy is a form of government in which all citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal (and more or less direct) participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law. It can also encompass social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination. The term comes from the Greek: δημοκρατία – (dēmokratía) "rule of the people", which was coined from δῆμος (dêmos) "people" and κράτος (Kratos) "power", in the middle of the 5th-4th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC.




According to some theories of democracy, popular sovereignty is the founding principle of such a system. However, the democratic principle has also been expressed as "the freedom to call something into being which did not exist before, which was not given… and which therefore, strictly speaking, could not be known."This type of freedom, which is connected to human "natality," or the capacity to begin anew, sees democracy as "not only a political system… [but] an ideal, an aspiration, really, intimately connected to and dependent upon a picture of what it is to be human—of what it is a human should be to be fully human."
While there is no specific, universally accepted definition of 'democracy', equality and freedom have both been identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times. These principles are reflected in all citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes. For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, and the freedom of its citizens is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by a constitution.
There are several varieties of democracy, some of which provide better representation and more freedom for their citizens than others. However, if any democracy is not structured so as to prohibit the government from excluding the people from the legislative process, or any branch of government from altering the separation of powers in its own favor, then a branch of the system can accumulate too much power and destroy the democracy. Representative Democracy, Consensus Democracy, and Deliberative Democracy are all major examples of attempts at a form of government that is both practical and responsive to the needs and desires of citizens.
Many people use the term "democracy" as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include elements such as political pluralism; equality before the law; the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances; due process; civil liberties; human rights; and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained). In other cases, "democracy" is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are applicable to private organizations and other groups as well.
Majority rule is often listed as a characteristic of democracy. However, it is also possible for a minority to be oppressed by a "tyranny of the majority" in the absence of governmental or constitutional protections of individual and/or group rights. An essential part of an "ideal" representative democracy is competitive elections that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press are considered to be essential, so that citizens are adequately informed and able to vote according to their own best interests as they see them. It has also been suggested that a basic feature of democracy is the capacity of individuals to participate freely and fully in the life of their society.
Democracy has its formal origins in Ancient Greece, but democratic practices are evident in earlier societies including Mesopotamia, Phoenicia and India.Other cultures since Greece have significantly contributed to the evolution of democracy such as Ancient Rome, Europe,[20] and North and South America. The concept of representative democracy arose largely from ideas and institutions that developed during the European Middle Ages and the Age of Enlightenment and in the American and French Revolutions.Democracy has been called the "last form of government" and has spread considerably across the globe. The right to vote has been expanded in many jurisdictions over time from relatively narrow groups (such as wealthy men of a particular ethnic group), with New Zealand the first nation to grant universal suffrage for all its citizens in 1893.

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Who is "boo"?

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It is a new trend of someone call "boo"..... But who that is?


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PHP vs Perl

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Perl vs PHP

PHP is another computer language. In a way, Perl and PHP are competitors in the programming world. Both languages have relatively similar learning curves, work well in the server environment, and have similar overall capabilities.



As you would expect, each language has its pros and cons. Ideally the webmaster would be able to use either language and choose the best one for a given project. However most programmers have a preference for one over the other and will tend to use their favourite.

In recent years PHP has become more popular with new programmers, in particular, web designers learning their first programming language. This may be because PHP is slightly easier to learn from a web design point of view. PHP pages are constructed like HTML pages, with standard HTML markup. PHP code is inserted into the page and executed when the page is requested. Conversely, Perl scripts are run as stand-alone programs and create HTML pages when the script is run.

Another issue is speed and efficiency. PHP is generally considered to be faster than Perl, although this is debatable. In any case there are certainly ways to make Perl perform as fast. PHP supporters often cite speed as a good reason to choose PHP, but in reality it is not normally a concern and any differences are usually academic.
Perl is a very powerful, robust language with more history than PHP. Although the newbie might think that Perl is more complicated than it needs to be for web development, experienced programmers will appreciate the vast array of options available with Perl.

In our opinion....
In regard to web development, we have yet to find a single thing that Perl can't do, whereas we have found limitations in PHP. We feel that the added power of Perl makes it the better choice. We have not found the efficiency issue to be much of an issue at all - in most cases it's only academic and won't actually affect the performance of your website.
In the end, either language will be adequate for most web development requirements.